Saturday, February 8, 2020

Term paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Term paper - Essay Example It is not a simple task to sum up the framework of present day’s consumer in a singularly described procedure. Not just do consumers' personal requirements show a discrepancy on a case-by-case basis, but also as a collective whole, customers' requirements are growing and have turn out to be a lot more intricate and challenging as compared to previous generations. Businesses are always trying to find techniques to not just meet these high hopes, but also go beyond them. Customers want not only personalized answers to their queries, but are as well trying to find personalization in terms of the approach company and its representatives adopt to take care of them. 2. How do other businesses provide this? Personalized customer service is one of the single most essential factors most organizations fail to notice, although it is the single factor that can in fact create trust with their customers at every step. From the instant they approach the company’s outlet or representat ive to the instant they take delivery of their order, giving personalized customer service will let one’s clients make out that they are the most essential business asset (Barnes, 2000). It does not actually take a lot of creativity to offer this level of service to the clients. Simply think about their opinion. What are their expectations from the company? How do they want to be treated by the company’s representatives? When it is known what is expected from the company, the company should go ahead of it. Do not provide only the smallest levels of service; surpass them on every level of the customer experience. Some of the methods by which other companies are providing personalized customer services are: Computerizing to the extent that is feasible and make it simple to get information regarding the products or services they offer. Offering clients the ability to â€Å"help themselves† gets a lot of the sales stress off and let them come to a decision in their own time. Maintaining stability in customer service from the minute customer places the order to the final follow up, sending them a note following the sale, asking them how they like the performance of the company and if they are happy with the level of service. Offering â€Å"added value† services, for instance, complimentary upgrades or guides. Keeping the clients up to date even after the sale as well as keeping lines of communication open, although not including all the sales publicity every time. Applying a ‘customer first’ environment between the workers and checking that they are following all the way through. Making sure that the staff quickly deals with the complaints. Giving incentive to workers who go that extra mile to think about the customers. This produces an atmosphere of personalized customer service. 3. How have other businesses profited from this? Other businesses are getting profits from personalized customer service in the following ways: Co mpanies start to gain profit from personalized customer service the instant they give their sales team members the power to take decisions on the shop floor. Clients will

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

The Wagner Act Essay Example for Free

The Wagner Act Essay Prior to the enactment of the Wagner Act, the United States already had several labors. The Railway Labor Act, which was passed in 1926, required employers to enter into collective bargaining agreements with unions. It also prohibited discrimination on the part of the company against the unions. The RLA however, only applied to railroads and was subsequently amended in order for airlines to be included. Thus during this period, while it was legal to form unions, companies were not prohibited from firing employees for being union members. In 1993, at the behest of then President Franklin Roosevelt, the National Industry Recovery Act was passed. Among the provisions, specifically Section 7(a), employees were not only given the right to form unions but that joining or non-joining of a union would not be used as a requirement for employment. That particular section also required companies to abide by conditions of employment such as the number of work hours and minimum wage as set by the President. However, the Act came under fire due to concerns of its effectiveness as was eventually overturned by the Supreme Court in May 1935. In order to address the issue of employers and unions, the Wagner Act or the National Labor Relations Act was passed in 1935. Named after its proponent, Sen. Robert F. Wagner, the Act incorporated Section 7(a) of the former NIRA. This particular section became the pillar of the Wagner Act. Aside from giving employees the right to form unions, the Wagner Act also defined what it considered as unfair labor practice by an employer. Under Section 8, an employer is said to have committed unfair labor practice if it: interferes, restraints or coerces an employee from joining, dominates or interferes in the formation of a union, discriminates an employee for being part of a union, seeks reprisal against an employees for filing unfair labor practice charges, and refuses to enter into a collective bargaining agreement with the unions. With the passing of the Wagner Act, two important things happened. First, membership in unions began to increase dramatically. From a mere 10% prior to the act, more than 30% of the total US workforce became union members by the 1950s. The second was the formation of the National Labor Relations Board. The NLRB is the agency that is tasked with overseeing the implementation of the Act. By approving the Wagner Act, it was seen that the government was ready to go against the private sector by giving employees the right to form unions and enter into collective bargaining agreements. All these however changed after World War II. As a result of the war, certain groups raised the issue of balancing the power enjoyed by both the labor sector and the companies. Thus in 1947, the Labor-Management Relations Act or Taft-Hartley Act was passed. The Taft-Hartley Act is considered as an amended to the Wagner Act. Although the Taft-Hartley Act retained some of the provisions of the Wagner Act there were also some changes implemented.   Notable changes include the delay or suspension of a strike if it would lead to a national emergency situation. The act also excluded employees who were at the supervisory level from being covered by the provisions of the Wagner Act. A closed shop or a company that hires only union members was also banned. The Taft-Hartley act also protected non-union members from being discriminated by union shops. A union shop is a company that although allows non-union employees to join, eventually requires these employees to eventually join a union. While maintaining the list of unfair labor practice by employers stated in the Wagner Act, the Taft-Hartley Act now included a list of unfair labor practices by unions.   Among others, the amendment required unions to give a 60 days notice to mediators of a planned strike and enter into good faith negotiations with employers. The Taft-Hartley Act further protected employers from facing reprisals from unions if it expressed adverse opinions against the unions. The Act also made it illegal for companies to practice featherbedding. That is, forcing employers pay certain individuals wages despite doing no work. Under the amendment, the primary functions of the NLRB was now to prevent and find solutions to unfair labor practices that is by either the employers or the unions.   The NLRB was also tasked to determine if employees prefer to be represented by union for the purpose of conducting collective bargaining with the company. Currently, the NLRB is divided into two sectors. The Board, which is composed of five individuals, has the task of deciding on cases based on records under administrative proceedings. The General Counsel on the other hand, is in charge of investigating and prosecuting unfair labor practice cases. The General Counsel is also the group tasked to supervise the processing of cases in the field offices. The Board and General Counsel is independent of each other. Another law worth mentioning is the Landrum-Griffin Act or the Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959. While it did not make sweeping changes like the Taft-Hartley, it nevertheless amended the Wagner Act by including additional unfair labor practices not included in the Taft-Hartley. The idea behind the Landrum-Griffin Act was to give further protection to the union members from their leaders. The Landrum-Griffin Act enabled a more open selection of union leaders. It also gave members the right to file legal charges against the union without fear of reprisal. While it is clear that the three laws mentioned are pro-labor, the passing of the Taft-Hartley Act tilted the scales somewhat in favor of the employers. However, membership in unions continued to increase despite the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act mainly because of the protection afforded by these laws. As seen from the laws that have been passed, the focus has always been on the employees. While the Wagner Act curtailed the abuses likely to be done by the companies, the Taft-Hartley Act restrained unions from becoming abusive and becoming a much bigger problem. The Landrum-Griffin Act effectively gave back the power of the union to its members and served as a warning for union leaders to ensure that their interests is in line with the general membership. While some sectors are saying that it may be time to repeal or amend these laws, particularly the Taft-Hartley Act, such a decision may not be good for now. While union membership may not be as high as it was before, the reason may not be entirely because of the provisions set forth in these laws. Currently, the labor force of the US is facing competitions form automation and outsourcing. Most companies nowadays prefer to use labor from countries outside the US since the wages are cheaper and the labor laws are lenient compared to those in the country. While the law encourages employers and unions to discuss collective bargaining agreements, it does not prevent companies from laying-off employees in the event of a financial problem. The labor union in the US has come a long way in order to be where it is right now. The laws, first and foremost, have always been there in order to protect the workers and ensure good working conditions. Union leaders should make good use of the provisions under the law. The Wagner Act and its amendments, the Taft-Hartley Act and Landrum-Griffin Act, were not enacted for aesthetic purposes. Unions should remind employers on why it was enacted in the first place. References National Labor Relations Act. National Labor Relations Board. 14 April 2008. http://www.nlrb.gov/about_us/overview/national_labor_relations_act.aspx

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

From The Lord To The Devis Hands :: essays research papers

â€Å"I came to do the Devil’s work† is the ironic and sad truth that Reverend John Hale realizes in Arthur Miller’s dramatic play, The Crucible. One can see that Hale’s personality changes enormously throughout the play. These changes are illustrated by Hale’s many statements in the play. The statements in the beginning of the play establish Hale’s firm beliefs and toward the end of the play his disgust with the outcome of the trials.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Hale is a very intriguing person with many character traits. â€Å"They must be, they are weighted with authority.† (p. 36) This shows that he is sure of his actions and himself. Another thing that he is sure of is witchcraft. This is shown when he states, â€Å"The Devil is precise; the marks of his presence are as definite as stone.† (p.38) and, â€Å"Are you gathering souls for the Devil?†(p. 44). One of Hale’s character flaws is that he judges by appearances. â€Å"You look as such a good soul should.† (p. 37) and, â€Å"A claim so weighty cannot be argued by a farmer.† (p. 99) He claims to be the right-hand man of the Lord, â€Å"Have no fear now; we shall find him out if he has come among us, and I mean to crush him utterly if he has shown his face.† When in reality, his actions and beliefs end with tragic results. Hale believes so strongly in his religion that he is willing to use unjust procedures to extract the information he wants. He does this when questioning Tituba and John Proctor. â€Å"When the Devil comes to you, does he come with another person? Perhaps another person in the village?† (p. 45) and â€Å"God put you in his hands to help cleanse this village.† (p. 46) Hale uses these persuading techniques and the authority of the church to find and punish the â€Å"enemies† of the church.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the second act, the audience can actually make a distinction between the morally weak Reverend Parris and Reverend Hale. When Hale goes to the Proctor’s house and hears about the accusations, he states, â€Å"if Rebecca Nurse be tainted, then nothing’s left to stop the whole green world from burning.† (p. 80) Yet, Hale is so religious that he has difficulty denying the charges. He even states, â€Å"until an hour before the Devil fell, God thought him beautiful in heaven.† (p. 68) Hale has a mental conflict here: His personal feelings tell him that a person such as Rebecca couldn’t be a witch but his training has taught him that Rebecca could be possessed by the Devil.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Environmental Speech Essay

My speech will be about Global warming, this is the rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans. In 2011 the emission of carbon dioxide and was the highest it had ever been before and it had also taken a similar jump in 2012. Over all, emissions of carbon dioxide had jumped 3 percent in 2011 and in 2012 it was estimated that it had jumped another 2. 6% in 2012. Scientists are 90% sure that Humans are the cause global warming from producing greenhouse gases produced by human activity like using a car which is burning fossil fuels and also is caused deforestation. Since the early 20th century the Earth’s average temperature has increased by 0. 8 degrees centigrade. The effect of an increased temperature will result in the rise of sea levels. Global warming is strongest in the arctic and causes a more frequent occurrence of extreme weather events such as heat waves, heavy rainfall, droughts and species extinction. How do we stop Global Warming? Turning the thermostat down a few degrees can make a big difference in decreasing our carbon dioxide emissions. Replacing a regular light bulb with compact florescent lights will save you ? 15 over the life of the bulb and reduce global warming. Driving less and using public transport more often will reduce the carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels which are burnt every day from transportation vehicles. Decorating your house with plants and trees will help as they take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Subjectivity of Women to Modern Mass Media’s...

Mary-Cate Grimes Diller ENG 102 Spring 2013 Research Argument Rough Draft The Subjectivity of Women to Modern Mass Media’s Construed Views of Beauty and How Their Effects on Body Image According to Medline Plus’s medical dictionary, a portion of the National Institute of Health’s website for patients and their families and friends, â€Å"body image† is defined as â€Å"a subjective picture of one s own physical appearance established both by self-observation and by noting the reactions of others.† From the start, it is made obvious by such a definition that any person’s self-body image is sculptured partly by others’ opinions and societal context. This, in turn, supports that this is the basis for the majority of mass media’s success; they†¦show more content†¦Despite the differing circumstances of these earlier time periods, the same unrealistic bodily ideals that society expected of women then still exist today. Mass media emits mixed signals as to what’s â€Å"hot† and whatâ €™s â€Å"not† with every advertisement they publicize. On one hand, companies advertise emaciated supermodels through television, magazine advertisements, and the like, who are idolized simply because they are skinny, as skinny has developed into one end of the â€Å"hot† spectrum of modern-day America. There is a catch, however. More and more supermodels, like those who model for Victoria’s Secret for example, have thin bodies, muscle tone, and larger chests. Many women have the tendency to idolize this figure and believe this is the way they should want to look in order to be considered â€Å"sexy.† Even the Barbie doll, for example, has unrealistic proportions that are simply physiologically impossible for any woman to have. These ideals are far too irrational for any woman to reach. On the other hand, more and more companies are making claims that larger, plus-size women should also be viewed as â€Å"beautiful† or â€Å"sexy,† in a ttempts to make those who are larger than â€Å"normal† feel more comfortable in their own skins. Given these mixed images, women are faced with unrealistic expectations every time they crack open a

Saturday, December 28, 2019

The Juvenile Justice System Is The System Essay - 1788 Words

The Juvenile Justice System is the system used to address and deal with youth who are caught and convicted of crimes. The juvenile justice system interferes in delinquent behavior through police, court and correctional involvement. Youth and their parents or guardians can face a variety of consequences which includes probation, community service, youth court, youth incarceration, and alternative schooling. The juvenile justice system is similar to the adult system, operates from a belief that intervening initial in delinquent behavior will discourage teenagers from engaging in criminal behavior as adults. Furthermore, according to Elizabeth S. Barnert, statistic which stated that about 2 million juveniles were arrested and over 60 000 detained annually. The statistic displayed that the United States incarcerates a larger amount of youths than other industrialized countries. In addition, 1 to 3 incarcerated adolescents represent a high-risk, defenseless population with disproportionat ely high rates of unmet physical, developmental, social, and mental health needs, and higher mortality. Moving forward, 4 to 7 juvenile offending forecasts a higher likelihood of chronic adult offending, as well as adverse adult outcomes such as poor health, substance use, and increased mortality. Nevertheless, African American youths are approximately 5 times more likely, while Latino and American Indian adolescents are 3 times more likely, to be detained than their White counterparts. Also, 3Show MoreRelatedJuvenile And Juvenile Justice System752 Words   |  4 PagesThe juvenile justice system and criminal justice system also known as the adult justice system is two different systems. The juvenile justice system is children who are under the age of 18 years old. After the age of 18, it is considered to be an adult it will enter through the adult justice system. There ate states that allows youth to stay in the juvenile justice system from age 18 until 21. The main differences be tween the juvenile justice system and criminal justice system is rehabilitation andRead MoreThe Juvenile Justice System1313 Words   |  6 Pages Today s concept of the juvenile justice system is relatively new due to significant modifications in policy overtime. The justice system has been trying to figure out effective ways to treat juvenile criminal offenders successfully for years. The justice system did not always have a special category for juveniles and their crime. Juveniles was once treated as adults when they committed crimes and were subjected to harsh punishments. The juvenile court was the culmination of efforts of the positivistRead MoreThe Juvenile Justice System788 Words   |  3 Pages The juvenile justice system was founded with the goal to serve the best interests of the child, with an understanding that youth possessed different needs than adults. Over the course of our semester we have come across various research studies that proves that the adult system is not well equipped to house and rehabilitate the delinquents. These studies have shown that more juveniles that are transferred to the criminal justice system ends up back in the system, which means the recidivism rateRead MoreJuvenile Justice Systems833 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Juvenile crime is a term around the world that is difficult to pinpoint and although there are several definitions many fail to be concrete. There are many factors that play into sentencing juveniles or minors upon a crime committed. How old are they? Can they mentally form criminal intent? Are they old enough to no longer be treated as children? Some people would argue that a criminal is just that, regardless of age. Research on the other hand shows that juveniles have underdevelopedRead MoreThe On The Juvenile Justice System Essay1236 Words   |  5 Pages I would request that Senator Perkins vote against the proposed amendments to the Juvenile Act. Part A Although public safety is both a legitimate and justifiable concern, the proposed changes to the purposes clause would go against the primary purpose of the juvenile justice system, rehabilitation and treatment as opposed to punishment. During the 19th century, the American legal system tended to treat juveniles who violated the criminal law much as it did adult offenders. Consequently, if courtsRead MoreThe Juvenile Justice System And Juveniles1663 Words   |  7 Pagescriminal justice system and juveniles, there have been many landmark cases that have made a significant impact on the juvenile justice system. The cases arise from dealing with certain aspects that comes from handling juveniles entering the system. Since juveniles are very different from adults they have to deal with them a certain way and a case by case basis. The court cases concerning juveniles and the decisions that have come from them is what has made what the juvenile justice system is todayRead MoreJuveniles A nd The Juvenile Justice System1559 Words   |  7 PagesJuveniles committing crimes is not a new issued being introduced to society; actually, it has been an issue for centuries. However, the big question is, should juveniles be tried in adult courts? Before answering, take into consideration every possible scenario that could have led them to commit the crime. For instance, were they the leader in the act? Did they participate in the crime? Was the juvenile even aware of what was taking place? Were they peer pressured? Did they have any other choiceRead MoreThe Juvenile Justice System For Juveniles1397 Words   |  6 Pageswere treated the same as adult criminals. If you are a young person under the age of 18 and you commit a crime, you will have your case heard in the juvenile justice system. The thing is that, it hasn’t always gone that way. The idea of a separate justice system for juveniles is just over one hundred years old (American Bar). Where did juvenile justice c ome from? The law was in the image of the common law of England. William Blackstone, Blackstone’s Commentaries on the Laws of England, first publishedRead MoreJuvenile Justice System856 Words   |  4 Pagesthe juveniles. A juvenile is someone who is at or below the upper age of the original jurisdiction in their resident state (Juvenile Justice, 2013). Juveniles due to age are not treated at the same level as adults; due to this we have Juvenile Justice. Juvenile justice was said to be considered all the way back to the early years from the English brought over to American culture from England (Juvenile Justice, 2013). Since then in America we have had 5 major periods in the Juvenile Justice systemRead MoreThe Juvenile Justice System795 Words   |  4 Pagessentencing demonstrates initial success in reducing recidivism rates in national outcome studies. The goal of these diversion programs is to keep adolescents out of the juvenile justice system whenever possible (Lips ey, Howell, Kelly, Chapman, Carver, 2010). These diversion programs divert adolescents from entering the juvenile justice system and offer alternatives to formal disciplinary action (Chantoe Manton, 2014). Teen courts (also called Youth Courts) are a growing type of diversion program that

Friday, December 20, 2019

The Rising Popularity Of Natural And Organic Foods

Introduction The rising popularity of natural and organic foods has led to the success of Whole Foods Market. This $15.4 billion company has found its niche as â€Å"America’s Healthiest Grocery Store†. They provide a one of a kind shopping experience with knowledgeable and friendly employees, as well as the freshest and highest quality products available. History of Whole Foods After dropping out of the University of Texas in 1978, John Mackey and friend, Renee Lawson (Hardy) were able to borrow $45,000 from Mackey’s family to open a small health food store, Safe Way Natural Foods, in Austin, Texas. A few years later in 1980 they met Craig Weller and Mark Skiles, who owned the Clarksville Natural Grocery, they decided to merge their stores. Thus Whole Foods Markets was born. The first Whole Foods was hardly a small market. It was a 10,500 square foot supermarket with only nineteen employees. And although it wasn’t the first natural food supermarket, the threesome found instant success. Their stores not only included the typical natural food fare such as organic fruits and fresh baked bread from local bakeries, and selections of cheese, beer, wine, and coffee that went above and beyond what the regular grocery stores were carrying. (Whole Foods Market History) Over the next decade, the company began expanding its operations further into Texas and beyond. In 1986 Whole Foods made their first acquisition of Bluebonnet Natural Foods Grocery in Dallas, Texas. In 1988, theyShow MoreRelatedBenefits And Benefits Of Organic Foods950 Words   |  4 PagesBenefits of Organic Foods Sales of organic food have risen steadily over the past couple of years, reaching nearly $30 billion in 2011, or 4.2% of all U.S. food and beverage sales, (Adams). Many people believe that organic foods are ultimately the better choice when it comes to health due to the absence of pesticides and hormones. But other people—especially those whose food budgets may be more defined—wonder if organic food is really worth the inflated price tag. Despite the price, Organic foods are worthRead MoreYoplait Critical Analysis883 Words   |  4 PagesCritical Analysis of General Mills’ Yogurt Business Introduction General Mills, Inc., is a U.S. leading based food company, producing packaged flour, breakfast cereals, refrigerated yogurt, dry dinners, frozen vegetable, and similar products. It’s consumer product has been sold and marketed in U.S. Retail stores, convenience stores, and outside of the United States (Forbes, 2017). In General Mills’ several yogurt product lines, â€Å"Yoplait is a leader in the multi-billion dollar U.S. yogurt categoryRead MoreThe United States1777 Words   |  8 PagesRecently emerging as a significant trend amongst the health-conscious community, quinoa has become a symbol of healthy and organic living across America. Due to this sudden rise in demand, this Bolivian superfood has been hitting the shelves of stores around the country faster than ever. This journey to American supermarket shelves is one that has recently come under scrutiny for its effects on the environment and the Bolivian farmers who grow and harvest it. In this paper, I will di scuss the detailsRead MoreWhy Organic Farming Is America s Leading Source Of Food Production Essay1768 Words   |  8 PagesThe food industry allows consumers to choose from a wide variety of products. However, most food corporations fail to tell the story behind their food. Is this secrecy due to their methods in creating their products? Conventional farming is America’s leading source of food production. Yet, the controversial practices used in conventional farming, may lead American’s to question if this is the only farming source that can feed our nation. Since 1972, organic farming has been creeping up the successRead MoreWe Must Live A More Sustainable Life1098 Words   |  5 Pages There is no doubt that human activity is having a significant impact on our environment. These environmental impacts include depleting our natural resources, air and water pollution, climate change, destruction of habitats, and loss of biodiversity. Because of these growing concerns, we need to learn how to live sustainably. Living sustainably will allow us to conserve our limited resources more wisely so they will be available for future generations (Withgott Brennan, 2011, Chapter 1). AlthoughRead MoreSwot Analysis on Whole Foods Market2356 Words   |  10 PagesCOMPANY PROFILE Whole Foods Market, Inc. REFERENCE CODE: BD72666B-7DBD-4CB9-A94F-4FDC7997ECA7 PUBLICATION DATE: 30 Mar 2013 www.marketline.com COPYRIGHT MARKETLINE. THIS CONTENT IS A LICENSED PRODUCT AND IS NOT TO BE PHOTOCOPIED OR DISTRIBUTED. Whole Foods Market, Inc. TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS Company Overview..............................................................................................3 Key Facts.........................................................Read MoreHome Assignment on Whole Foods Market3430 Words   |  14 PagesHome assignment on Whole Foods Market 1. Related products Whole Foods Market only sells products that meet its self-created quality standards for being natural, which the store defines as: minimally processed foods that are free of hydrogenated fats as well as  artificial flavors, colors, sweeteners, preservatives and products that are listed on their online Unacceptable Food Ingredients list. Whole Foods Market has also announced that it does not intend to sell meat or milk from  cloned  animalsRead MoreEarths Natural Energy Sources Essay1470 Words   |  6 Pagesproduced from natural resources such as, wind, sunlight, rain, tides and geothermal heat which can be re-used or replenished. Natural energies (renewable energies) have its advantages and disadvantages. The reliance on fossil fuel is reduced by the sources of renewable energy. Though the use of natural sources has many advantages over the use of fossil fuels, the cost of investment for it can be too high for some people. In this project, I will be highlighting mainly on the sources of natural energy andRead MoreFast Food Is A Global Phenomenon986 Words   |  4 PagesHealthy nutritious foods have been replaced by the new food mantra-JUNK food. In the context of world economy, Junk food is a global phenomenon. The availability of junk food and snacks at low prices and marketing strategies adapted by manufacturers of such as foods has triggered an evolution. The fast food has been growing constantly during the past few years. The popularity of fast food is rapidly among many people to the following three main reasons: good taste, convenient time, and price. ItRead MoreThe Body Shop Marketing Audit6422 Words   |  26 Pagesdivide between consumer expectations of products and manufacturer definitions.† - 50% There are a large number companies operating in the organic category, leaving the organic positioning claim open to interpretation, creating the issue that some products are more organic than others. When it comes to new cosmetics and toiletries entering the beauty market, the ‘natural’ scale is wide and inconsistent. This can have a large effect on The Body Shop as it may devalue their USP. It would be beneficial for